S to Z

+ other stuff


Sturm Abteilung

Storm Detachment

The Sturmabteilung (SA), functioned as the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

It played a significant role in Adolf Hitler's rise to power in the 1920s and 1930s. Their primary purposes were providing protection for Nazi rallies and assemblies, disrupting the meetings of opposing parties, fighting against the paramilitary units of the opposing parties, especially the Red Front Fighters League (Rotfrontkämpferbund) of the Communist Party of Germany (KPD), and intimidating Slavic and Romani citizens, unionists, and Jews – for instance, during the Nazi boycott of Jewish businesses.

The SA have been known in contemporary times as "Brownshirts" (Braunhemden) from the color of their uniform shirts. The SA developed pseudo-military titles for its members. Brown-coloured shirts were chosen as the SA uniform because a large batch of them were cheaply available after World War I, having originally been ordered during the war for colonial troops posted to Germany's former African colonies.

The SA became disempowered after Adolf Hitler ordered the "blood purge" of 1934. This event became known as the Night of the Long Knives (die Nacht der langen Messer). The SA was effectively superseded by the SS, although it was not formally dissolved until after the Third Reich's final capitulation in 1945.

SA dues

Other SA stamps

SA Quittungskarte (SA Receipt card)

SA Quittungskarte (SA Receipt card)

SA Quittungskarte (SA Receipt card)

SA Quittungskarte (SA Receipt card)

SA Quittungskarte (SA Receipt card)

SA Quittungskarte (SA Receipt card)


SA Reserve

SA Reserve

The term "reserve SA" is closely linked to the organizational structure of the SA. In the history of the SA, since its reestablishment in November 1925, there has also been a reserve squad since 1927. Formally, the official reserve was not set up until March 1929. At that time, their relatives were more than 40 years old or were excluded from active membership because of their profession. The reserve service of the reserve included two hours a week, plus a fortnight.

Reorganization of the SA reserve after 1933

Prior to the advent of Adolf Hitler (1933), the Reserve SA at that time comprised about 20 percent of SA members. In the spring of 1933, the former independent armored units of Stahlhelm and Kyffhäuserbund were integrated into the SA, the structure of the Reserve SA changed. In November 1933, for example, she comprised the following sub-organizations:

Active SA for members between 18 and 35 years

SA Reserve I (SAR I) for age groups between 35 and 45 years

SA Reserve II (SAR II) for SA members over 45 years.

SA reserves I and II were also allocated to the majority of the older Stahlhelm and Kyffhäuser members. Their relatives under the age of 35 were taken over into the "active SA" and formed the so-called Wehrstahlhelm. In theory, the affiliation in the "Wehrstahlhelm" was voluntary. Since, however, a refusal to membership could be interpreted as hostile to the regime, this was relatively rare.

SAR II Ausweiss  (SA Membership card)

Membership pin

SAR II Ausweiss  (SA Membership card)


Steirischer Heimatbund

Steirischer Heimatbund (StHB) was established 10.5.1941 by CdZ Uiberreither's decree as the only political organisation allowed in Untersteiermark (Slovene Styria enlarged). There was no NSDAP in Untersteiermark as StHB was supposed to transform into NSDAP in the future.

StHB leader was Franz Steindl.

For a short time Steindl's deputy was Hans Baron.

In prewar Yugoslavia parson Hans Baron was head of German Protestant community in Dravska banovina district which roughly comprised Slovene ethnic territory in Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

In Maribor Baron was deputy to Kulturbund leader dr. Lothar Mühleisen 1931-1935. Kulturbund was an organization of ethnic Germans banned in 1935 and allowed again in October 1939, when Hans Baron became regional Kulturbund leader in Dravska banovina.

7.6.1941 armed members of Kulturbund led by Baron seized power in Maribor and performed police duties until 24.6.1941. When German army arrived to Maribor 8.6.1941 Baron reported to the commander and sent a cable with greetings and thanks to Hitler. When Uiberreither arrived to Maribor 14.6.1941 and assumed power in Untersteiermark Baron greeted him and delivered public speech. In those days it was decided that Franz Steindl would become StHB leader and Hans Baron would be his deputy. Baron was in fact appointed Steindl's deputy but not for long.

Soon after arrests, deportations and executions of Slovene population Hans Baron warned that such measures would only lead to unrest and resistance. He was not opposed to annexation and germanization of Slovene Styria but he disagreed with using such violent measures to achieve the goal. In spite of his prewar credit he was soon put aside. In December 1941 he was not among those ethnic Germans who solemnly became members of NSDAP. 1.5.1942 Hans Baron and brewery owner Franz Tschelig wrote a ten-page letter to NSDAP main office in Berlin expressing their discontent and disappointment. In June 1942 StHB leadershio sent a negative opinion on Baron to CdZ Uiberreither. After that, Baron disappeared from public.

Registration fee


Social Fund fee

Membership card

Deutsche Jugend Dienstausweis/German Youth Proof of service

Membership pin


Sudetendeutsche Partei

Sudeten German Party

The Sudeten German Party, SdP, Czech: Sudetoněmecká strana) was created by Konrad Henlein under the name Sudetendeutsche Heimatfront ("Front of Sudeten German Homeland") on October 1, 1933, some months after the state of Czechoslovakia had outlawed the German National Socialist Workers' Party (Deutsche Nationalsozialistische Arbeiterpartei, DNSAP). In April 1935, the party was renamed Sudetendeutsche Partei following a mandatory demand of the Czechoslovak government. The name was officially changed to Sudeten German and Carpathian German Party (Sudetendeutsche und Karpatendeutsche Partei) in November 1935.

With the rising power of Nazi Party in Germany, the Sudeten German Party became a major pro-Nazi force in Czechoslovakia with explicit official aim of breaking the country up and joining it to the Third Reich. By June 1938, the party had over 1.3 million members, i.e. 40.6% of ethnic-German citizens of Czechoslovakia. During last free democratic elections before the German occupation of Czechoslovakia, the May 1938 communal elections, the party gained 88% of ethnic-German votes, taking over control of most municipal authorities in the Czech borderland. The country's mass membership made it one of the largest fascist parties in Europe at the time.

SHF membership book.

Sudetendeutsche Heimatfront ("Front of Sudeten German Homeland")

Note the revenues.

Top left: Election in 1935 (SHF)

Top right: Election Rally with Konrad Henlein (SHF)

Bottom left: Voluntary contribution (SdP)

SdP membership book.

Sudetendeutsche Partei (Sudeten German Party)

Mitgliedsausweiss (Membership book)

Mitgliedsausweiss (Membership book)



Propaganda vignettes

Cover from the Sudentendeutsche Partei leader Konrad Henlein.



Protection Squadron

The Schutzstaffel (SS; also stylized as     with Armanen runes); was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany. It began with a small guard unit known as the Saal-Schutz (Hall-Protection) made up of NSDAP volunteers to provide security for party meetings in Munich. In 1925, Heinrich Himmler joined the unit, which had by then been reformed and given its final name. Under his direction (1929–45), it grew from a small paramilitary formation to one of the most powerful organizations in Nazi Germany. From 1929 until the regime's collapse in 1945, the SS was the foremost agency of surveillance and terror within Germany and German-occupied Europe.

The two main constituent groups were the Allgemeine SS (General SS) and Waffen-SS (Armed SS). The Allgemeine SS was responsible for enforcing the racial policy of Nazi Germany and general policing, whereas the Waffen-SS consisted of combat units of troops within Nazi Germany's military. A third component of the SS, the SS-Totenkopfverbände (SS-TV), ran the concentration camps and extermination camps. Additional subdivisions of the SS included the Gestapo and the Sicherheitsdienst (SD) organizations. They were tasked with the detection of actual or potential enemies of the Nazi state, the neutralization of any opposition, policing the German people for their commitment to Nazi ideology, and providing domestic and foreign intelligence.

The SS was the organization most responsible for the genocidal killing of an estimated 5.5 to 6 million Jews in the Holocaust. Members of all of its branches committed war crimes and crimes against humanity during World War II (1939–45). The SS was also involved in commercial enterprises and exploited concentration camp inmates as slave labor.

Membership dues

SS-Unterscharführer Hans Ritter. Two Membership cards (reverses blank)

Temporary SS membership card

Usage unknown

Usage unknown


Förderndes Mitglied der SS

SS Patron Members

A Förderndes Mitglied der SS was a member of a Nazi organisation for individuals who did not join the Allgemeine SS (General SS) for active duty, but instead contributed financially to the SS. The SS-FM was organised by the SS Wirtschafts-und Verwaltungshauptamt (SS Economic and Administrative Department), and started in 1926. Members of the SS-FM made monthly payments towards the work of the SS at their local SS headquarters. For people with low income, the grant was correspondingly low, a minimum contribution was not prescribed. Each member was issued with a lapel pin and a receipt book.

Membership dues

FM SS Mitgliedsbuch für Hermann Bode

FM SS Membership book for Hermann Bode


Technische Hochschule Berlin

Technical University of Berlin

At the time of the transition between the Weimar Republic and the Nazi state, the universities tried to adopt a neutral political position. The majority of the professors were national-conservative. The Nazi regime later understood how to mobilize a part of this political camp with its prevailing anti-democratic attitude. However, the politicization of the universities did not originate from the professors, but in this sense, the students were mainly active. The National Socialist German Student Union (NSDStB) grew before 1933 to the strongest political power within the university.


Volksbund für das Deutschtum in Ausland

Association for German cultural relations abroad

The Verein für Deutsche Kulturbeziehungen im Ausland (VDA) is a German cultural organisation. During the Nazi era, it was engaged in spying across the whole world, using German minorities living in other countries. Its other goals included preservation of German culture among "racial Germans".

The Verein für das Deutschtum im Ausland (VDA) was renamed Volksbund für das Deutschtum im Ausland in 1933. It had started ... The National Socialists used the association for their own political aims and racist propaganda. During the pre-war years and through WWII, the VDA distributed over 1,200 different donation badges, postcards and other items to raise funds for its charity work. This was done alongside other similar charity drives by organisations such as the Winterhilfswerk (WHW), the Deutsches Rotes Kreuz (DRK/German Red Cross) and others. In the middle of 30s the organization found itself in dispute with Hitler, as it had more extensive territorial claims against other countries than Hitler was willing to demonstrate in international arena.

After the Second World War started, VDA together with SS was engaged in preparing and carrying out ethnic cleansing in territories conquered by Nazis during the Second World War.

VDA due

VDA Membership card

VDA propaganda postcard.

"We are fighting for the German School abroad"


Volksdeutsche Bewegung in Luxemburg

People's movement in Luxembourg

The Volksdeutsche Bewegung (VdB) was an association which was convinced of the membership of the Luxemburger to the "Germanic race" (Volksdeutsche) and the connection to the nationalsocialist German Reich during the occupation of Luxembourg in the Second World War with the motto "Heim ins Reich" Reach.

On 10 May 1940, after the German military power occupied Hitler's neutral neutrality, the "Volksdeutsche Bewegung (VdB)" was founded 7 days later in Luxembourg (city).


Volksbund Deutsche Kriegsgräberfürsorge

German War Graves Commission

VDB dues

From the adaptive attitude of the Volksbundes, the latter decided in 1933 a new statute which, in addition to the deaths of the world war, also integrated the so-called "bloods of national socialism" and the deaths of the post-war battles into their own work.

During the period of National Socialism, the number of members rose sharply: at the end of 1934 there were 151,110 members in 1,830 localities, in 1936 4,747 local groups with 295,000 members and in 1943 993,572 members. During the 1930s, the VDK benefited from numerous large-scale projects and built so-called "Totenburgs" on St. Annaberg in Upper Silesia and - for the 4,000 German soldiers killed in the Piav battles - in Quero, Northern Italy.

One year VDA due


Verein der Reichdeutschen in Ungarn

Association of the Reichsdeutsche in Hungary


Volks Röntgen Untersuchung

People's X-ray examination


Winter Hilfs Werk

Winter Relief of the German People

The Winterhilfswerk des Deutschen Volkes, commonly known by its abbreviated form Winterhilfswerk or WHW, was an annual drive by the Nationalsozialistische Volkswohlfahrt (National Socialist People’s Welfare Organization) to help finance charitable work. Its slogan was "None shall starve nor freeze". It ran from 1933-1945 during the months of October through March, and was designed to provide food, clothing, coal, and other items to less fortunate Germans during the inclement months.

As part of the centralization of Nazi Germany, posters urged people to donate rather than give directly to beggars.

The Hitlerjugend and Bund Deutscher Mädel (boys and girls' associations, respectively) were extremely active in collecting for this charity. As part of the effort to place the community over the individual, totals were not reported for any individuals, only what the branch raised.

WHW 1934/35. Donation stamp

WHW 1935/36. Donation card

WHW 1938/39. Donation stamps

WHW 1938/39. Donation card

Court fee stamps


Health insurance

Krankenkasse Gebührmarken  (Health Insurance fee stamps)

Allgemeine Ortskrankenkasse (General Regional Health Insurance)



Allgemeine Ortskrankenkasse (General Regional Health Insurance)








During the French campaign in 1940, the German army occupied Alsace, imprisoned the Reichsdeutscher civil administration, and joined the NSDAP-Gau Baden-Alsace. There was no such thing as a worthwhile battle in Alsace. There was no international assignment of the territory by France. 45,000 people were expelled from Alsace. In 1941 the Nazis set up the Struthof concentration camp in the Vosges. A symbolic figure of the policy of the NSDAP in Alsace is Robert Wagner ( "Robert Backfisch").

Between the years 1942 and 1944 about 130,000 Alsbacher and Lorraine (Alsace and Lorraine), who were drafted into the Wehrmacht and the Waffen-SS as "Volksdeutsche", were about 42,500. The confiscation was contrary to international law, since nationals of the war opponent are not allowed to be conscripted. Most of these so-called Malgré-nous were deployed on the Eastern Front. On the other hand, many Alsatians had previously been drafted by the French army, they had joined voluntarily, or later belonged to the French Resistance (Resistance).

Between November 1944 and February 1945 the Alsace was taken by Allied troops and then under French administration again.



In the Second World War Lorraine was occupied by the German armed forces in 1940. After the surrender of France, the Moselle was placed under the head of the civil administration (CdZ), the NSDAP politician Josef Bürckel, as a "CdZ area of Lorraine". The German language was again prescribed as an official and school language. The non-German-speaking population was to a considerable extent, up to October 1943 according to contemporary data about 80,000 persons, which corresponded 15 per cent of the population. The area was later to form together with the Saarland and the Palatinate the Reichsgau Westmark. The capital was Saarbrücken, where the head of the civil administration was already established. The formal integration into the German Reich no longer took place.


The term "Generalgouvernement" refers to areas of the former Second Polish Republic, which were occupied by the German Reich in 1939-1945 and were not directly integrated into the Reich territory, as well as the administrative structures established there under the Governor General and NSDAP functionary Hans Frank and His deputy Josef Bühler, based in Krakow. It initially comprised an area of 95,000 km² and was extended on August 1, 1941 to the former Soviet district Galizien to 142,000 km².

Click here to see further items from: